Guide to Threat Modeling using Attack Trees

by | Feb 22, 2024

Share article:
threat modeling using attacks trees

In the world of cybersecurity, understanding and managing potential threats is crucial to safeguarding systems and data. Threat modeling is a technique used to identify and analyze potential threats to an application, network, or system. One popular approach to threat modeling is using attack trees. In this article, we will explore the concept of attack trees and how they can be used for effective threat modeling.

What is an Attack Tree?

An attack tree is a graphical representation of the various steps an attacker might take to exploit vulnerabilities and achieve specific malicious goals. It provides a visual and organized way to model the attack paths, potential vulnerabilities, and their dependencies. Attack trees are built using a hierarchical structure and can be subdivided into smaller attack trees to represent different attack vectors.

Creating an Attack Tree

Creating an attack tree involves the following steps:

Step 1: Identify the Goal

Start by identifying the specific goal an attacker could have. For example, the goal could be to gain unauthorized access to a system, tamper with data, or cause a denial-of-service (DoS) attack.

Step 2: Define the Root Node

Create the root node of the attack tree, representing the identified goal. Use a descriptive keyword or phrase as the label for the root node.

Step 3: Identify Attack Paths

Identify different attack paths an attacker could follow to reach the goal. These paths represent a series of steps an attacker might take to exploit vulnerabilities. For each attack path, create child nodes connected to the root node.

Also Read, Threat Modeling Best Practices

Step 4: Subdivide Attack Paths

For each attack path, further subdivide it into smaller attack trees or sub-attack trees. These sub-attack trees represent individual elements, actions, or vulnerabilities that an attacker may exploit. Repeat this step recursively until you reach a level of detail that provides enough granularity for analysis.

Also Read, How to Improve Your Analytics Thinking in Threat Modeling

Step 5: Add Attack Techniques and Vulnerabilities

For each node in the attack tree, add specific attack techniques, strategies, or vulnerabilities that an attacker could utilize or exploit. This helps identify potential weaknesses in the system and highlight areas requiring additional protection.

Also Read, Threat Modeling Data Flow Diagrams

Step 6: Assess and Analyze

Analyze the attack tree to assess the likelihood and impact of each attack path. This analysis allows you to prioritize risks, identify critical vulnerabilities, and plan appropriate countermeasures.

Also read, Threat Modeling vs Pentesting: What is the Difference?

Real-World Example: Web Application Attack Tree

Let’s consider a real-world example of a web application attack tree:

Root Node: Gain Unauthorized Access

  • Attack Path 1: Exploit Weak Authentication
    • Sub-Attack Tree 1.1: Brute-Force Attack
    • Sub-Attack Tree 1.2: Password Guessing
    • Sub-Attack Tree 1.3: Credential Theft
  • Attack Path 2: Exploit Vulnerabilities in Input Validation
    • Sub-Attack Tree 2.1: SQL Injection
    • Sub-Attack Tree 2.2: Cross-Site Scripting (XSS)
    • Sub-Attack Tree 2.3: Command Injection
  • Attack Path 3: Exploit Server Misconfigurations
    • Sub-Attack Tree 3.1: Default Credentials
    • Sub-Attack Tree 3.2: Exposed Sensitive Information
    • Sub-Attack Tree 3.3: Insecure File Permissions

By analyzing this attack tree, we can identify the critical attack paths and vulnerabilities that need attention. For instance, we may prioritize strengthening authentication mechanisms, implementing proper input validation, and securing server configurations.

Also Read, Comprehensively about Stride Threat Model


Attack trees provide a structured and visual representation of potential attack paths, vulnerabilities, and goals an attacker may exploit. By using attack trees for threat modeling, organizations can proactively identify and assess potential risks, prioritize security efforts, and plan robust defensive measures. Remember, threat modeling is an ongoing process that should be revisited regularly to account for emerging threats and evolving technologies.


The Certified Threat Modeling Professional (CTMP) is a vendor-neutral course and certification program. In fact, the course curriculum will also focus on Security requirements in agile environments, Agile Threat modeling, Threat Modeling as Code, and Secure Design Principles to help you ensure security in the design phase.

The course provides hands-on training through browser-based labs, 24/7 instructor support, and the best learning resources to upskill in Threat Modeling.

Start your journey mastering Threat Modeling today with Practical DevSecOps!
Share article:
Share article:

Interested in Upskilling in DevSecOps?

Practical DevSecOps offers excellent security courses with hands-on training through browser-based labs, 24/7 instructor support, and the best learning resources.

Begin Today to Transform Your Career!

Meet The Author



Muhammed Yuga Nugraha is the creator of awesome lists which is focused on security for modern technologies, such as Docker and CI/CD. He is a thriving DevSecOps engineer who is focused on the research division exploring multiple topics including DevSecOps, Cloud Security, Cloud Native Security ,Container Orchestration, IaC, CI/CD and Supply Chain Security.


Submit a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

You May Also Like:

Kubernetes Networking  Guide
Kubernetes Networking Guide

Over the years, Kubernetes has greatly improved container orchestration so it is high time for any kind of quick deployments to understand its networking tune for better deployments. This guide provides tips on how to optimize and secure Kubernetes networking. Even if...